Background Science related second-order knowledges which are ordinarily recognized as "History, Philosophy and Scientific Ethics" (HPE) have an important role in the formation of graduate students' understanding of the science and its interaction with other majors of knowledge and also with the society. In the study of "The status of education of HPE in the graduate programmes in Iran", we have tried to assess the level and distribution of offered HPE courses in the mentioned domain.

Objectives The main objective of the study is identification of courses which belong to the HPE fields and are officially included in the curriculum of graduate programmes in the governmental universities of Iran. These universities cover 75 percent of the community of Iranian graduate students. It should be noted that medical majors are designed and supported by the ministry of Medicine, Health and Medical Education and non-medical majors are designed and supported by the ministry of "Science, Researches and Technology"; therefore, our other objective is a comparison between the status of offering HPE courses in majors supported by these two ministries. During the study, we recognized that a triple classification of History, Philosophy and Ethics does not suffice for covering all science related second-order knowledges. Therefore, scrutinizing of the mentioned classification is another objective of this study.

Methods In the section of identification of courses, we apply the method of documentary study using the documents of official curriculums. In the section of the scrutinizing of the classification of second-order knowledges, taking the triple version as the base, we apply the method of content analysis on the nature and goals of science related second-order knowledges and suggest a new classification.

Results In the field of classification of the second-order knowledges, we suggest four categories: 1-History and Sociology of science, 2-Philosophy and Methodology of science, 3-Scientific and Professional Ethics and the new category of 4-Management, Programming and Policy making of science. The latter category is one of the most important and most challengeable fields of communication of scientific community with governments, funding organization and public domains which is ordinarily neglected in the discussions about fields of knowledge related to the science. The results show that the level of offering courses about the science related second-order knowledges in graduate programmes in Iran is noticeably low. So that in each 5 majors only one course in the mentioned fields is offered, 43 percent of which are mandatory. This fact shows that the scholars? information about the mentioned fields have been often obtained through ways apart from the officially education. Another noticeable issue is that the medical majors are in a ?? better situation, such that the number of offered courses in the medical majors is 5.3 of the non-medical majors ones and 33 percent of them is offered mandatory. This data ?? support the claim that a closer and more developed interaction between medical fields and the public domain has led to more attention to second-order knowledges in comparison with the non-medical fields. Conclusion The lack of knowledge of science related second-order fields may bring about consequences, both in the developing of science and in the communication of science and society. While the official curriculums are the most straightforward way of transferring these knowledges to experts, the need for modifications in the curriculums of Iranian universities is completely . Furthermore, according the fact that Iranian curriculums have mainly route in the curriculums offered in Europe and North America, it seems that such modifications are also needed in these countries.

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A look on the status of HPE(history, philosophy and ethics of science) education in the graduate cerriculum in Iran

Maziar Attari   National Research Institute of Science Policy(NRISP)

Yasser Khoshnevis   National Research Institute of Science Policy(NRISP)

Zahra Ramezani   National Research Institute of Science Policy(NRISP)

Mehdi Ramezani   National research institute of science policy(NRISP)

Background Science related second-order knowledges which are ordinarily recognized as "History, Philosophy and Scientific Ethics" (HPE) have an important role in the formation of graduate students' understanding of the science and its interaction with other majors of knowledge and also with the society. In the study of "The status of education of HPE in the graduate programmes in Iran", we have tried to assess the level and distribution of offered HPE courses in the mentioned domain.

Objectives The main objective of the study is identification of courses which belong to the HPE fields and are officially included in the curriculum of graduate programmes in the governmental universities of Iran. These universities cover 75 percent of the community of Iranian graduate students. It should be noted that medical majors are designed and supported by the ministry of Medicine, Health and Medical Education and non-medical majors are designed and supported by the ministry of "Science, Researches and Technology"; therefore, our other objective is a comparison between the status of offering HPE courses in majors supported by these two ministries. During the study, we recognized that a triple classification of History, Philosophy and Ethics does not suffice for covering all science related second-order knowledges. Therefore, scrutinizing of the mentioned classification is another objective of this study.

Methods In the section of identification of courses, we apply the method of documentary study using the documents of official curriculums. In the section of the scrutinizing of the classification of second-order knowledges, taking the triple version as the base, we apply the method of content analysis on the nature and goals of science related second-order knowledges and suggest a new classification.

Results In the field of classification of the second-order knowledges, we suggest four categories: 1-History and Sociology of science, 2-Philosophy and Methodology of science, 3-Scientific and Professional Ethics and the new category of 4-Management, Programming and Policy making of science. The latter category is one of the most important and most challengeable fields of communication of scientific community with governments, funding organization and public domains which is ordinarily neglected in the discussions about fields of knowledge related to the science. The results show that the level of offering courses about the science related second-order knowledges in graduate programmes in Iran is noticeably low. So that in each 5 majors only one course in the mentioned fields is offered, 43 percent of which are mandatory. This fact shows that the scholars? information about the mentioned fields have been often obtained through ways apart from the officially education. Another noticeable issue is that the medical majors are in a ?? better situation, such that the number of offered courses in the medical majors is 5.3 of the non-medical majors ones and 33 percent of them is offered mandatory. This data ?? support the claim that a closer and more developed interaction between medical fields and the public domain has led to more attention to second-order knowledges in comparison with the non-medical fields. Conclusion The lack of knowledge of science related second-order fields may bring about consequences, both in the developing of science and in the communication of science and society. While the official curriculums are the most straightforward way of transferring these knowledges to experts, the need for modifications in the curriculums of Iranian universities is completely . Furthermore, according the fact that Iranian curriculums have mainly route in the curriculums offered in Europe and North America, it seems that such modifications are also needed in these countries.

A copy of the full paper has not yet been submitted.

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