If we admit the importance of the scientific advances in the development of society we have to conclude that society itself must participate in the decision making. Thus, in Spain it would be very convenient that the parliament would approve a Spanish Plan of Science and Society, with similar objectives to those of the European one but adapted to the Spanish reality. A detailed analysis of the actual situation of the Spanish system of science and technology will not be carried out in this presentation; however some references will be made and some solutions for the short and long term will be provided. The objectives are the promotion of a scientific culture and education, to bring together science to the citizens and to analyse the ethical dimension of science and the new technologies. This is why the idea of a dialogue has been included in the title, a democratic, sincere dialogue, free of any “a prioris” to be held between the scientific community, the social agents, the state administrations and the political parties. The different studies performed by the European Union, the OCDE, and other institutions indicate that our system presents considerable deficiencies mainly linked to a low level of investment and expenditure in public and private R and D, which results in a deficient technological level, a scarce number of patents and in the insufficient development of the information society. There is still a long way to go, but there are positive elements to propose a Spanish Plan of Science and Society, working seriously on particular aspects and coming to important agreements with the citizens.
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